quinta-feira, fevereiro 18, 2016

O Erro de Einstein (Capítulo 154)

A propósito da péssima cobertura mediática das recentes descobertas relacionadas com as ondas gravitacionais, deixo aqui um resumo de 40 argumentos científicos, devidamente anotados, que demonstram o carácter inconclusivo e até errático da Teoria da Relatividade (Restrita e Geral).
Ao contrário, gentil leitor, do que leste nas manchetes da semana passada, Einstein está muito longe do absoluto.
  1. Computer simulations based on the theory of relativity predict far more black holes than are observed.[1] Indeed, it is doubtful whether black holes even exist, and the latest observation disproved the prediction.[2]
  2. "Quasars are disappearing" contrary to the theory of relativity, and astronomers simply "stopped looking" after finding more than ten examples of rapidly changing quasars that confound the theory with respect to black holes.[3]
  3. The orbital eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is increasing, contrary to what Relativity predicts.[4]
  4. The Pioneer anomaly.
  5. The Sun is a perfect sphere - "the solar flattening is ... too small to agree with that predicted from its surface rotation."[5]
  6. Quantum entanglement near the event horizon of a black hole - with one particle of the pair on one side, and other particle of the pair on the other side -- defies the Theory of Relativity.[6] Relativity is a mathematical theory that cannot permit any exceptions, just as arithmetic falls part if 2 times 2 is ever not equal to 4.
  7. The speed of light in a vacuum is slower than expected -- less than c -- based on new data from a 25-year-old supernova.[7]
  8. "Celestial signals defy Einstein. Strange signals picked up from black holes and distant supernovae suggest there's more to space-time than Einstein believed."[8]
  9. A physics article published in 2014 states that "general relativity, which describes gravity at low energies precisely, break[s] down at high energies."[9]
  10. Subatomic particles with mass have a speed observed to be as fast as the speed of light ("we are 100% sure that the speed of light is the speed of neutrinos"[10]), which contradicts Relativity because the Lorentz factor is then infinite.[11][12] Neutrinos were observed to travel at the speed of light by an independent experiment also: "Their neutrinos traveled at precisely the speed of light, not faster or slower."[13]
  11. Anomalies in the locations of spacecraft that have flown by Earth ("flybys"). During the gravity assists from Earth, both the Galileo spacecraft and the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft experienced a change in velocity different than that predicted by General Relativity.[14][15]
  12. Spiral galaxies confound Relativity, and unseen, nonexistent "dark matter" has been invented to try to retrofit observations to the theory.[16] "Dark matter mysteriously missing around sun. Theories say neighborhood should be filled with it, but new study shows otherwise."[17]
  13. The acceleration in the expansion of the universe confounds Relativity, and unseen "dark energy" has been invented to try to retrofit observations to the theory.
  14. Increasingly precise measurements of the advance of the perihelion of Mercury show a shift greater than predicted by Relativity, well beyond the margin of error.[note 2]
  15. The discontinuity in momentum as velocity approaches "c" for infinitesimal mass, compared to the momentum of light.
  16. The observed lack of curvature in overall space.[note 3]
  17. The universe shortly after its creation, when quantum effects dominated and contradicted Relativity.
  18. The action-at-a-distance of quantum entanglement.[note 4]
  19. The failure to discover gravitons, despite spending hundreds of millions in taxpayer money in searching. While these tax dollars were not necessarily "wasted", the lack of results indicate that scientists need to revisit their hypothesis.
  20. Newly observed data reveal that the fine-structure constant, α (alpha), actually varies throughout the universe, demonstrating that all inertial frames of reference do not experience identical laws of physics as claimed by Relativity.[note 5]
  21. The double star "W13" weighs "40 times as much as the sun—more than enough to form a black hole. So why is it not a black hole? The only explanation [a leading scientist] can think of ... does not make astrophysical sense."[20]
  22. The inability of the theory to lead to other insights, contrary to every verified theory of physics.
  23. The change in mass over time of standard kilograms preserved under ideal conditions.[21]
  24. The uniformity in temperature throughout the universe.[22]
  25. "According to Einstein’s view on the universe, space-time should be smooth and continuous" but observations instead show "inexplicable static" greater than "all artificial sources of" possible background noise.[23]
  26. "The snag is that in quantum mechanics, time retains its Newtonian aloofness, providing the stage against which matter dances but never being affected by its presence. These two [QM and Relativity] conceptions of time don’t gel."[24]
  27. The theory predicts wormholes just as it predicts black holes, but wormholes violate causality and permit absurd time travel.[25]
  28. The theory predicts natural formation of highly ordered (and thus low entropy) black holes despite the increase in entropy required by the Second Law of Thermodynamics.[note 6]
  29. Data from the PSR B1913+16 increasingly diverge from predictions of the General Theory of Relativity such that, despite a Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded for early work on this pulsar, no data at all have been released about it for over five years.
  30. The lack of useful devices developed based on any insights provided by the theory; no lives have been saved or helped, and the theory has not led to other useful theories and may have interfered with scientific progress.[note 7] This stands in stark contrast with every verified theory of science.
  31. Relativity requires different values for the inertial mass of a moving object: in its direction of motion, and perpendicular to that direction. This contradicts the logical principle that the laws of physics are the same in all directions.
  32. Relativity requires that anything traveling at the speed of light must have mass zero, so it must have momentum zero. But the laws of electrodynamics require that light have nonzero momentum.
  33. Unlike most well-tested fundamental physical theories, the theory of relativity violates conditions of a conservative field. Path independence, for example, is lacking under the theory of relativity, as in the "twin paradox" whereby the age of each twin under the theory is dependent on the path he traveled.[note 8]
  34. Based on Relativity, Einstein predicted in 1905 that clocks at the Earth's equator would be slower than clocks at the North Pole, due to different velocities; in fact, all clocks at sea level measure time at the same rate, and Relativists made new assumptions about the Earth's shape to justify this contradiction of the theory; they also make the implausible claim that relativistic effects from gravitation precisely offset the effects from differences in velocity.[26]
  35. The Twin Paradox: Consider twins who are separated with one traveling at a very high speed such that his "clock" (age) slows down, so that when he returns he has a younger age than the twin; this violates Relativity because both twins should expect the other to be younger, if motion is relative. Einstein himself admitted that this contradicts Relativity.[note 9]
  36. Despite a century of wasting billions of dollars in work on the theory, "No one knows how to solve completely the equations of general relativity that describe gravity; they are simply beyond current understanding."[27]
  37. Experiments in electromagnetic induction contradict Relativity: "Einstein’s Relativity ... can not explain the experiment in graph 2, in which moving magnetic field has not produced electric field."[28][29]
  38. Relativity breaks down if a solenoid is traveling at or near the speed of light.[30]
  39. The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two electrons in a closed system can exist in the same quantum state and if one electron changes all others must compensate. As the universe is a closed system when one electron changes state so must all others, even if they are thousands of light years apart.[31]
  40. The recent findings of gravitational waves are actually just dust.[32]